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How to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes

With the development of social economy and the improvement of living standards, people’s dietary structure has changed, physical activity has been reduced, and life span has been prolonged, causing diabetes to become widespread worldwide. Diabetes is mainly divided into four categories, namely: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and other special types of diabetes. People are generally puzzled by the difference between type 1 and type 2. Today I will introduce the difference between these two types of diabetes in detail.

1

Different pathogenesis

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of the immune system, which is mainly caused by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells by the immune system, causing most pancreatic beta cells to be severely damaged, resulting in absolute shortage of insulin, unable to meet the body’s needs, and increasing blood sugar.

Type 2 diabetes is due to genetics, obesity, high-calorie diet, insufficient physical activity and other reasons that cause insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects, rather than the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells.

This is not easy to understand. We vividly compare the pancreas to a factory. The pancreatic islet beta cells are the workers in the factory. Insulin is the product produced by the factory. Type 1 diabetes is because there are not enough workers in the factory to produce enough products, and this This kind of product is still a necessity of life; Type 2 diabetes means that the factory has enough workers to produce it, but because the market demand of the body is too large, it exceeds the production capacity of the factory, which causes the factory to overload and still cannot meet the needs of the body. Overworked, many unqualified products have been produced, leading to what we often call insulin resistance, and the end result is increased blood sugar.

Based on the above introduction, it is not difficult to see that type 1 diabetes is a problem with insulin production, while type 2 diabetes is mainly a problem with insulin demand.

2

Age of onset is different

Type 1 diabetes has a problem with the pancreas, so the age of onset is relatively early, and it usually shows obvious symptoms at a very young age, even in adolescence.

Type 2 diabetes has a great relationship with lifestyle and environmental factors, so many people do not get onset until after 35 years of age.

Simply put, type 1 diabetes generally occurs in adolescents, type 2 diabetes mostly occurs in middle-aged and elderly people, and a small number of children and adolescents may also develop type 2 diabetes.

3

Different clinical manifestations

The typical symptoms of diabetes are “three more and one less”, that is, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and weight loss. In fact, these typical symptoms mostly occur in type 1 diabetes, while patients with type 2 diabetes have no obvious symptoms in the early stage. Some people find it accidentally when measuring blood sugar. As the disease progresses, microvascular, macrovascular, and nervous system diseases will gradually appear, which will lead to symptoms such as skin susceptibility, blurred vision, and numbness of the limbs. At the same time, symptoms of “three more and one less” will appear.

4

Different treatment

Because of insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes, the application of hypoglycemic drugs is generally ineffective, and blood sugar can only be controlled by insulin.

Because of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes requires a variety of treatment measures such as exercise, diet, hypoglycemic drugs or the application of insulin.

5

Complications are different

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can have various acute and chronic complications, but the types of complications are different.

In terms of acute complications, type 1 diabetes is prone to ketoacidosis, type 2 diabetes is less frequent, but older people are prone to hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.

In terms of chronic complications, type 1 diabetes is prone to complicated with fundus retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Arteriosclerotic lesions of the heart, brain, kidney or limbs are rare, while type 2 diabetes can occur in addition to type 1. In addition to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, which are the same as diabetes, the incidence of arteriosclerotic lesions of the heart, brain, and kidney vessels is higher, and hypertension is also more common.