In the outpatient and emergency department of urology, the number of patients with urinary calculi due to unspeakable pain or hematuria has increased significantly. Patients often ask, what is the matter with urinary calculi? What should I do if I have stones? Is there any good way to treat urinary tract stones? How to prevent urinary tract stones? With these questions in mind, Kan Fushao, director of the Department of Urology, K. Wah Hospital, talked with you about popular science knowledge about urinary calculi.
Overview of the incidence of urinary calculi
my country is one of the three high-incidence areas of stones in the world, and urinary calculi is a common and frequently-occurring disease in my country. It ranks first among inpatients in urology department. According to statistics, the incidence rate in my country is 1% to 5%, and it is as high as 5% to 10% in the South. What is this concept? Five out of 100 people may suffer from urinary calculi, which is much greater than our chance of winning a lottery ticket.
So what kind of disease is urinary calculi?
How do stones form?
Urinary calculi are also called urolithiasis, urolithiasis, urinary calculi, urinary calculi, etc., including kidney stones, ureteral stones, bladder stones and urethral stones. As far as the age of onset is concerned, it is more common in young adults. In terms of incidence, there are more men than women. The causes of urinary calculi are very complex, and are usually related to the individual’s metabolism, infection, urinary tract obstruction and environmental factors. Urinary stones can have different components, some contain calcium, such as calcium oxalate stones, calcium phosphate stones, etc.; some do not contain calcium, such as cystine stones, xanthine stones, uric acid or urate stones, magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, etc. , Can also be mixed. It varies from person to person, and the same is a kidney stone. The composition of one person’s stone is likely to be different from that of another person. Are these stone components all eaten into the body? Actually, they are all products of our body’s metabolism and are excreted in the urine. Only when the urine concentration is too high and other abnormal conditions, according to the “core” theory of stone formation, from the initial formation of small crystals to the formation of the stone “core”, and then gradually grow up like a “snowball”.
What are the symptoms of urinary calculi?
Urinary stones can be asymptomatic, so some patients are found by physical examination, but most patients are diagnosed because of the onset of symptoms. The typical symptoms of urinary stones are pain and hematuria. The pain is on one side of the waist or side of the abdomen. The pain can be mild pain or it can be an attack of colic. Once renal colic has occurred, it will be unforgettable for a lifetime. Colic often comes on suddenly, or after strenuous activity, or in sleep. The pain is like a knife cut, radiating from the waist to the lower abdomen, vulva, and inner thigh on the same side. Sometimes accompanied by symptoms such as pale complexion, cold sweats, nausea, vomiting and frequent urination. After a period of time, colic can be relieved naturally, but it is often relieved by the application of analgesic drugs.
What are the damages to the body caused by urinary stones?
The damage of urinary tract stones to the body is mainly manifested in the urinary system, which can cause urinary tract obstruction, infection and injury. Stones, obstruction and infection are mutually cause and effect, forming a vicious circle, that is, stones cause obstruction, obstruction causes infection, and infection causes stones. Obstruction of the urinary tract on one side can lead to the loss of kidney function on this side in severe cases. Bilateral urinary tract obstruction can cause uremia in severe cases. Therefore, if you have urinary stones, you must actively treat them to remove the stones, relieve the obstruction, and control the infection.
What should I do if I have urinary stones?
After coming to the hospital for treatment, as specialists, we not only need to know if you have a stone, but also need to know the size, number, location, hardness, etiology, etc. of the stone. We will choose different treatment plans according to the characteristics of your stones to achieve individualized treatment. Generally speaking, 90% of stones with a diameter of less than 0.5 cm can be discharged naturally. When the diameter of the stone is greater than 0.8 cm, the method of removing the stone with medicine is not effective, and surgical intervention is often required. At present, all patients with urinary calculi can be treated with minimally invasive methods. For example: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, rigid transurethral ureteroscope, soft-scope laser lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, etc., to crush and excrete the stone. These methods have less trauma, less pain, and recovery. Quick features.
How to prevent the recurrence of stones?
With the development of science and technology, the current treatment methods for urinary calculi can be said to be changing with each passing day. But how to prevent the recurrence of urinary tract stones is still a worldwide problem. Urinary stones are easy to recur, which is a headache for doctors and patients. So how to prevent recurrence? For the causes of stones, first of all, we must develop the habit of drinking more water and dilute urine. A simple method of judging how much you drink is recommended. The color of your urine is not yellow, and the amount of water you drink is enough. Generally, 2,000 to 3,000 milliliters of water should be evenly distributed every day, which is clinically called “hydration”, which is essential to prevent the formation of stones. What water to drink? Just boiled water, try not to drink sugary, carbonated drinks, strong tea, coffee, etc. Second, pay attention to dietary regulation. For example, patients with high urine calcium should eat less high-calcium foods such as milk; patients with high oxaluria should eat less foods rich in high oxalic acid, such as spinach, black tea, etc.; patients with uric acid stones should eat less food rich in high oxalic acid Purine food, such as liver, kidney and other animal organs. Finally, follow-up is very necessary for stone patients who are being treated or who have received treatment. It is recommended to review the B-ultrasound of the urinary system every 3-6 months. Early detection and early treatment can get twice the result with half the effort