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World Diabetes Day | Things you should know about diabetes

On the occasion of 11.14 United Nations Diabetes Day

Pope Jun takes you to get to know

Chronic non-communicable diseases-diabetes

Chronic non-communicable diseases refer to diseases that last for a long time and develop slowly . The 4 main types of chronic non-communicable diseases are:

Cardiovascular diseases

(Such as heart attack and stroke)

Chronic respiratory disease

(Such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma)

cancer

diabetes

Let’s get to know it together today

One of the four main types-diabetes

Q1

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or the body cannot effectively use the produced insulin . Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycemia or elevated blood sugar is a common result of uncontrolled diabetes. Over time, it will cause serious damage to many systems of the body, especially nerves and blood vessels.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent, adolescent or childhood-onset diabetes) is characterized by a lack of insulin secretion capacity and requires daily insulin injections. The cause of type 1 diabetes is unclear, and it cannot be prevented with existing knowledge.

Symptoms include excessive urine production (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), frequent hunger, weight loss, vision loss, and fatigue. These symptoms can appear suddenly.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (previously called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes) is caused by the body’s inability to use insulin effectively. Ninety percent of diabetic patients around the world suffer from type 2 diabetes, mainly due to overweight and lack of physical activity.

The symptoms may be similar to type 1 diabetes, but the symptoms are often not obvious. As a result, diabetes may be diagnosed many years after the onset of the disease, at which time complications have already occurred.

Until recently, this type of diabetes was only seen in adults, but there are also cases in children.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia, which first develops or is diagnosed during pregnancy.

Symptoms of gestational diabetes are similar to type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed through prenatal screening rather than reporting symptoms.

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG)

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) refer to an intermediate state in the transitional phase between normal and diabetic blood glucose levels.

Patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although this is not inevitable.

Q2

What are the common consequences of diabetes?

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🔸 As diabetes progresses, it may damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.

🔸 Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. 50% of diabetics die from cardiovascular disease (mainly heart disease and stroke).

🔸 Foot neuropathy combined with reduced blood flow increases the possibility of foot ulcers and eventually leads to amputation.

🔸 Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness. It is the result of long-term cumulative damage to small blood vessels in the retina. After 15 years of diabetes, about 2% of patients are blind, and about 10% of patients have severe vision loss.

🔸 Diabetes is one of the main causes of kidney failure. 10-20% of diabetic patients die of kidney failure.

🔸 Diabetic neuropathy is a kind of nerve damage caused by diabetes, and it affects up to 50% of diabetic patients. Although diabetic neuropathy can cause many different problems, the common symptoms are tingling, pain, numbness, or sore hands and feet.

🔸In general, the risk of death for people with diabetes is at least double that of their peers without diabetes.

Q3

Diabetes and air pollution?

“The Lancet Planet Health” published a research report titled “2016 Diabetes Attributable to PM2.5 Air Pollution” on June 29, 2018, which comprehensively analyzed the 8.5-year history of 1.7 million U.S. veterans. The physical sign data and the air data of the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as past international research on diabetes and air pollution, are used to calculate the diabetes risk of residents under different levels of air pollution based on mathematical models.

The author calculates that type 2 diabetes related to air pollution has caused a total loss of life expectancy of 8.2 million years globally in 2016. It is estimated that air pollution worldwide was associated with 3.2 million new diabetes cases in 2016, and 14% of new diabetes cases in the United States were caused by air pollution.

The particle detected in this study is the well-known PM2.5. The diameter of PM2.5 particles allows it to penetrate the lungs and enter the blood circulatory system. Through the blood circulation system, PM2.5 particles can enter different organs and cause inflammation. The inflammatory response can increase the antagonistic effect of insulin. Eventually, the antagonistic effect of insulin will become more and more serious, causing the pancreas to fail to produce enough insulin to compensate, and diabetes is easy to take advantage of it.

Q4

How can the burden of diabetes be reduced?

prevention

Facts have shown that a change in lifestyle is effective in preventing type 2 diabetes or delaying the onset of diabetes . To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:

Physical activity : Regularly perform at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activities. Need to increase activity to control weight.

Ensure a healthy diet: eat fruits and vegetables three to five times a day, and reduce the intake of sugar and saturated fat;

Avoid using tobacco : Smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Diagnosis and treatment

Early diagnosis can be made through relatively inexpensive blood tests.

Treatment of diabetes includes lowering blood sugar and other known risk factors that damage blood vessels.

Quitting smoking is also important to avoid complications.

Feasible interventions

Proper blood sugar control : Patients with type 1 diabetes need insulin injections; patients with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medications, but they may also need insulin therapy.

Blood pressure control: Bakris of Rush University Hypertension Research Center at Rush Presbyterian-St.Lukes Medical Center believes that the most beneficial way to slow the progression of hypertension is to at least control systolic blood pressure below 125-130mmHg and diastolic blood pressure below 70-75mmHg. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are the only and most important drugs for the treatment of diabetic hypertension. It can also lower blood pressure and proteinuria.

Foot care: Wear soft socks and shoes to avoid ulceration and bleeding of the skin, and it is not easy to solidify. And you can use warm water to wash your feet every night, but the water temperature can’t exceed 40 degrees, and can’t soak for too long. You can also massage the feet to stimulate nerves and muscles.

Other cost-saving interventions

Retinopathy (causing blindness) screening and treatment

Blood lipid control (regulate cholesterol level)

Screen for early signs of diabetes-related kidney disease

A new study by the US Environmental Protection Agency shows that for every increase of 10 micrograms/cubic meter of particulate pollutants in the air, people’s risk of developing diabetes will increase by 15%. This risk exists regardless of whether people are overweight or not.

To purify the air, clean the residence and itself , spray humidification equipment with disinfection and sterilization function can be used to prevent air pollution. The spray purifier used in the G20 summit is equipped with a Purpian clean space environmental purification sheet, which can fully protect the home air safety of people with diabetes.

Exercise for people with diabetes

1. Dancing: Jumping for 30 minutes can consume 165 calories.

2. Climbing and walking quickly: 320 calories can be consumed in 30 minutes.

3. Jogging: 30 minutes can burn 295 calories.

4. Swimming: Taking freestyle as an example, it consumes 255 calories in 30 minutes and 510 calories in 1 hour.

5. Cycling: The speed is lower than 16 kilometers per hour, and it consumes 145 calories when riding for 30 minutes.

6. Housework: Doing 30 minutes of housework, such as planting flowers and weeding, can consume 165 calories.

Three unsuitable diets

1. It is not advisable to eat all kinds of sugar, candied fruit, canned fruit, soda, juice, jam, ice cream, sweet biscuits, sweet bread and sugared cakes, etc., because these foods are high in sugar and are prone to high blood sugar.

2. It is not advisable to eat foods containing high cholesterol and animal fat, such as animal brain, liver, heart, lung, waist, egg yolk, fat, butter, pork and tallow, etc. These foods are easy to increase blood lipids and are prone to arteries. Atherosclerosis.

3. It is not suitable to drink alcohol. Alcohol can make blood sugar fluctuate. Severe hypoglycemia can occur when drinking a lot of alcohol on an empty stomach, and drunkenness can often cover up the performance of hypoglycemia, which is difficult to find and very dangerous.

By the way, while taking these measures, you should also ensure a healthy diet, exercise regularly, maintain a normal weight and avoid tobacco use.

As long as these four points are achieved, many diseases can be avoided as much as possible. Puppi Jun hopes that everyone will have a healthy body!

The above is some small knowledge about diabetes

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